May. 09, 2022
A. Classified by the acyl content of the main chain of the gellan gum molecule
According to the different content of acyl groups in the main chain of gellan gum molecules, gellan gum can be divided into high acyl gellan gum (HA) and low acyl gellan gum (LA). Acyl groups largely affect its gelling characteristics. Gellan gum synthesised directly by microorganisms is generally rich in acyl groups (acetyl and glycerol groups) and becomes high acyl gellan gum (also called natural gellan gum).
High acyl gellan gum (HA)
Highly acylated glues are obtained by the fermentation of oligomeric sphingomonads without deacylation.
Low acyl gellan gum (LA)
Low acyl glues are obtained by removing all or part of the acyl group from the molecular structure of gellan gum.
The acyl group has a very significant influence on the properties of the gellan gum. High acyl gellan gums form soft, elastic and non-brittle gels, while low acyl gellan gums form firm, non-elastic but brittle gels.
Properties of high acyl gellan gum and low acyl gellan gum
High acyl gellan gum (HA)
Low acyl gellan gum
Dissolve in hot water
Dissolve in hot or cold water (with chelating agent)
Cation, acid, soluble solids
70~80℃ ( 158~176℉ )
30~50℃ ( 86~122℉ )
Sensitivity to cations
Not very sensitive
Very sensitive, especially to divalent cations
B. Cassified by product application
Gellan gum can be divided into gellan gum for suspension use, gellan gum for gelling use, gellan gum for daily chemicals products, gellan gum for culture medium and edible gellan gum.
Gellan gum for suspension use
It is a low acyl gellan gum, mainly used in acidic or neutral highly transparent suspended drinks. It’s used to stabilise beverages by suspending fruit pulp and insoluble solid particles. It also can form a solid and brittle gel or be mixed with other colloids to produce products of different structure.
Recommended usage amount: 0.012~0.03%
Gellan gum for gelling use
It is a low acyl gellan gum. As a gelling agent, it plays a gel forming role in jelly, jam, candy and other water-based gel products.
Recommended usage amount: 0.1 ~ 0.5%.
Gellan gum for daily chemicals products
It's a low acylated gellan gum, mainly used in air scents and cosmetics to form a solid, transparent gel or a good water-holding emulsion.
Recommended usage amount: 0.2 to 0.6%.
Gellan gum for culture medium
It's a low acyl gellan gum, mainly used in biological media to form a solid and transparent medium for clearer observation of biological growth.
Recommended usage amount: 0.2~0.8%
Edible gellan gum
In the food industry, gellan gum is used as an excellent gelling agent, giving food a pleasant texture and taste. Compared to gelling polysaccharides such as carrageenan and agar, gellan gum has significant advantages in terms of acid stability, heat reversibility and volume of use.
The gel made by gellan gum is brittle and very sensitive to shear forces. It has a melt-in-your-mouth sensation when consumed. Gellan gum has good flavour release properties and is stable over a wide pH range. It can be used to improve the structure of food products, the physical stability of liquid nutritional products, and the ability to hold water in food preparation and storage. Gellan gum is compatible with other food gums to improve their stability or to modify their structure. In addition, it can improve starch to give it optimum textural properties and stability.
Function and usage of gellan gum in food
Moisture content control
0. 3 (pastry)
0. 075 (Starch gummy)
Jellies, fillings, sweets, jams, etc.
0. 2 (low solids jam)
Frozen drinks, syrups
Ice cream, salad dressings
Artificial sausage casings
0.7 (artificial multi-flavored fruit chunk)
Jams, meat sausages, fillings, etc.
Typical application of gellan gum in food
Main food category
Starch jellies, pectin jellies, fillings, pulp gummies
Jams and jellies
Low calorie jams, artificial jams, bakery fillings, jellies
Artificial fruit, artificial vegetables, artificial meat
Dessert gels, meat slices
Fruit fillings and puddings
Instant desserts, canned puddings, fruit fillings, pre-cooked puddings
Various suspended fruit drinks, suspended fruit juice drinks
Gel dairy products, low-fat spreads
Caned gel pet food